Safety and efficacy of the epithelial sodium channel blocker idrevloride in people with primary ciliary dyskinesia (CLEAN-PCD): a multinational, phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial

Felix C. Ringshausen*, Adam J. Shapiro, Kim G. Nielsen, Henryk Mazurek, Massimo Pifferi, Karl H. Donn, Menno M. van der Eerden, Michael R. Loebinger, Maimoona A. Zariwala, Margaret W. Leigh, Michael R. Knowles, Thomas W. Ferkol, CLEAN-PCD investigators and study team

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: 

Mucociliary clearance is dysfunctional in people with primary ciliary dyskinesia, resulting in the accumulation of dehydrated mucus in the airways that is difficult to clear. We undertook a study to assess the benefit on lung function of treatment with a nebulised epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker, idrevloride, with or without hypertonic saline, in people with primary ciliary dyskinesia. 

Methods: 

The CLEAN-PCD trial was a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial conducted at 32 tertiary adult and paediatric care centres and university hospitals in Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, the UK, and the USA. People with a confirmed diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia, aged 12 years or older, with a percentage of predicted FEV1 (ppFEV1) in the range of 40% to <90%, were randomly assigned in a 2:2:1:1 ratio (block size=6), stratified by ppFEV1 at screening, to one of four sequences: (1) idrevloride in hypertonic saline in treatment period 1 then hypertonic saline in treatment period 2; (2) hypertonic saline in treatment period 1 then idrevloride in hypertonic saline in treatment period 2; (3) idrevloride in treatment period 1 then placebo in treatment period 2; and (4) placebo in treatment period 1 then idrevloride in treatment period 2. The idrevloride dose was 85 μg and hypertonic saline was 4·2% NaCl. 3 mL of each study treatment was nebulised twice daily for 28 days in treatment periods 1 and 2; the two 28-day treatment periods were separated by a 28-day washout period. The primary endpoint was absolute change from baseline in ppFEV1 after 28 days. Safety assessments and reports of adverse events were made at clinic visits during each treatment period and by a follow-up telephone call 28 days after the last dose of study drug. Additionally, adverse events could be reported at a follow-up telephone call 3 days after the start of dosing and as they arose. Participants who received at least one dose of study drug were included in the safety analyses (safety set), and those who also had spirometry data were included in the efficacy analyses (full analysis set). The completed study is registered (EudraCT 2015-004917-26; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02871778). 

Findings: 

Between Sep 14, 2016, and May 31, 2018, 216 patients were screened and 123 were randomly assigned to one of four crossover sequences. Across the two treatment periods, treatment with idrevloride in hypertonic saline was initiated in 80 patients and completed in 78 patients (all 78 had data available and were included in the analysis); hypertonic saline initiated in 81 patients and completed in 76 patients (75 had data available and were included in the analysis); idrevloride initiated in 37 patients and completed in 35 patients (34 had data available and were included in the analysis); and placebo initiated in 36 patients and completed in 34 patients (all 34 had data available and were included in the analysis). Greater absolute increases in ppFEV1 from baseline to 28 days of treatment were seen with idrevloride in hypertonic saline (least-squares mean absolute change from baseline 1·0 percentage points, 95% CI –0·4 to 2·4) than with hypertonic saline alone (least-squares mean absolute change from baseline of –0·5 percentage points, –2·0 to 0·9; difference 1·5 percentage points, 95% CI <0·1 to 3·0; p=0·044). There was no significant difference in ppFEV1 for the parallel comparison of idrevloride in hypertonic saline compared with placebo or the crossover comparison of idrevloride with placebo. Adverse events were similar across treatments (57 to 65% of patients). Cough occurred in a greater proportion of participants during treatments that contained idrevloride or hypertonic saline compared with placebo, and oropharyngeal pain occurred in a greater proportion of participants during idrevloride treatments than during treatment with hypertonic saline alone or placebo, whereas chest discomfort was more common during treatments that included hypertonic saline.

Interpretation: 

In this phase 2 crossover study, idrevloride in hypertonic saline was safe and associated with improved lung function over a 28-day period in people with primary ciliary dyskinesia compared with hypertonic saline alone. Larger, longer clinical studies are warranted to explore the potential benefits of idrevloride in combination with hypertonic saline in people with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

Funding:

Parion Sciences, under agreement with Vertex Pharmaceuticals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-33
Number of pages13
JournalThe Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024

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© 2024 Elsevier Ltd

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