SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats and dogs in infected mink farms

Anna E. van Aart, Francisca C. Velkers, Egil A.J. Fischer, Els M. Broens, Herman Egberink, Shan Zhao, Marc Engelsma, Renate W. Hakze-van der Honing, Frank Harders, Myrna M.T. de Rooij, Carien Radstake, Paola A. Meijer, Bas B. Oude Munnink, Jan de Rond, Reina S. Sikkema, Arco N. van der Spek, Marcel Spierenburg, Wendy J. Wolters, Robert Jan Molenaar, Marion P.G. KoopmansWim H.M. van der Poel, Arjan Stegeman, Lidwien A.M. Smit*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Animals like mink, cats and dogs are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the Netherlands, 69 out of 127 mink farms were infected with SARS-CoV-2 between April and November 2020 and all mink on infected farms were culled after SARS-CoV-2 infection to prevent further spread of the virus. On some farms, (feral) cats and dogs were present. This study provides insight into the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-positive cats and dogs in 10 infected mink farms and their possible role in transmission of the virus. Throat and rectal swabs of 101 cats (12 domestic and 89 feral cats) and 13 dogs of 10 farms were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using PCR. Serological assays were performed on serum samples from 62 adult cats and all 13 dogs. Whole Genome Sequencing was performed on one cat sample. Cat-to-mink transmission parameters were estimated using data from all 10 farms. This study shows evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 12 feral cats and 2 dogs. Eleven cats (18%) and two dogs (15%) tested serologically positive. Three feral cats (3%) and one dog (8%) tested PCR-positive. The sequence generated from the cat throat swab clustered with mink sequences from the same farm. The calculated rate of mink-to-cat transmission showed that cats on average had a chance of 12% (95%CI 10%–18%) of becoming infected by mink, assuming no cat-to-cat transmission. As only feral cats were infected it is most likely that infections in cats were initiated by mink, not by humans. Whether both dogs were infected by mink or humans remains inconclusive. This study presents one of the first reports of interspecies transmission of SARS-CoV-2 that does not involve humans, namely mink-to-cat transmission, which should also be considered as a potential risk for spread of SARS-CoV-2.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge the submitting and originating laboratories of the sequences from GISAID's EpiCov Database on which the phylogenetic tree was based. The Municipal Health Services (GGD) are thanked for providing data on human infections at mink farms. We especially want to thank veterinarian J.W. Dijkshoorn of Pecon BV for sampling the animals at NB52. This study was commissioned and funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Foods.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases published by Wiley-VCH GmbH

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