Background: Up to 15% of all visits to the Emergency Department (ED) are alcohol related. Identification of problematic alcohol use is important in this setting because it allows for intervention and prevention efforts. This study investigated the correlation between the objective phosphatidylethanol (PEth) marker and the subjective Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Timeline Followback Questionnaire (TLFB) as screening methods for hazardous alcohol use in the general ED population. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 301 ED patients (57% male) who were seen in the ED and required to give a blood sample. The correlation between the values of PEth (PEth 16:0/18:1 and PEth 16:0/18:2) and the scores on the AUDIT and TLFB were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Differences between risk categories of PEth and AUDIT were also examined. Results: The Spearman correlation coefficients between PEth 16:0/18:1|PEth 16:0/18:2 values and the AUDIT scores were moderate (PEth 16:0/18:1: 0.67, p < 0.001; PEth 16:0/18:2: 0.67, p < 0.001). Of the patients who scored ‘low risk drinking/abstinence’ according to the AUDIT questionnaire, respectively 1% and 4% had PEth 16:0/18:1|PEth 16:0/18:2 values indicating excessive alcohol use, and another 10% and 12% had PEth 16:0/18:1|PEth 16:0/18:2 values indicating moderate alcohol consumption. Of the 12 (PEth 16:0/18:1) and 25 (PEth 16:0/18:2) patients with high-risk values, respectively 25% and 40% scored in the lowest risk category on the AUDIT questionnaire. Spearman correlation coefficients between PEth 16:0/18:1|PEth 16:0/18:2 values and TLFB two-week scores were high (PEth 16:0/18:1: 0.74, p < 0.001; PEth 16:0/18:2: 0.82, p < 0.001). Conclusions: AUDIT scores were moderately correlated with PEth values in the general ED population. In almost all cases where there was not a good correlation, patients had high PEth values with low AUDIT scores. We conclude that PEth identifies patients with problematic alcohol use who are missed by the AUDIT questionnaire and therefore PEth could be used as an additional screening method for hazardous alcohol use in this population.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study received funding from Stichting Coolsingel (Rotterdam, The Netherlands) for the costs of the laboratory analyses of the PEth value in the blood samples.
© 2022 The Authors. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Research Society on Alcoholism.