SCUBA Diving in Adult Congenital Heart Disease

Robert M. Kauling, Rienk Rienks, Judith A.A.E. Cuypers, Harald T. Jorstad, Jolien W. Roos-Hesselink*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

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Conventionally, scuba diving has been discouraged for adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD). This restrictive sports advice is based on expert opinion in the absence of high-quality diving-specific studies. However, as survival and quality of life in congenital heart disease (CHD) patients have dramatically improved in the last decades, a critical appraisal whether such restrictive sports advice is still applicable is warranted. In this review, the cardiovascular effects of diving are described and a framework for the work-up for ACHD patients wishing to engage in scuba diving is provided. In addition, diving recommendations for specific CHD diagnostic groups are proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2023

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