Second primary cancers in survivors of cervical cancer in the Netherlands: Implications for prevention and surveillance

M Arnold, LF Liu, GG Kenter, CL Creutzberg, Jan Willem Coebergh, Isabelle Soerjomataram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Background and purpose: We investigated the effects of socio-demographic, treatment- and tumor-specific determinants on the risk of developing a second malignancy among patients treated for cervical cancer. Material and methods: We included patients with a first cervical cancer (N = 12,048) from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR), 1989-2008. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and absolute excess risks (AER) per 10,000 person-years were calculated to estimate the burden of second cancers in cervical cancer survivors. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed to identify predictors for second cancers among cervical cancer survivors. Results: During the study period, 676 (5.6%) patients were diagnosed with a second cancer. Smoking-related cancers contributed the most to the overall burden of second cancers (AER = 21) and risks remained elevated after 10 years of follow-up (SIR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.2), yet it decreased markedly in the younger birth cohorts. Cervical cancer survivors who underwent radiotherapy were at higher risk for a second tumor when compared to those without radiotherapy, especially at smoking-related sites (IRR = 1.6 (1.2-2.3)). Conclusion: Patients with cervical cancer had a significantly increased risk for a second cancer compared to the general population, especially for: smoking- and irradiation-related tumors. Long-term follow-up suggested the importance of smoking cessation and the benefits of counseling cervical cancer patients accordingly, particularly those who received radiotherapy. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)374-381
Number of pages8
JournalRadiotherapy and Oncology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Research programs

  • EMC NIHES-02-65-02

Cite this