A novel method is presented for carotid artery vessel wall segmentation in computed tomography angiography (CTA) data. First the carotid lumen is semi-automatically segmented using a level set approach initialized with three seed points. Subsequently, calcium regions located within the vessel wall are automatically detected and classified using multiple features in a GentleBoost framework. Calcium regions segmentation is used to improve localization of the outer vessel wall because it is an easier task than direct outer vessel wall segmentation. In a third step, pixels outside the lumen area are classified as vessel wall or background, using the same GentleBoost framework with a different set of image features. Finally, a 2-D ellipse shape deformable model is fitted to a cost image derived from both the calcium and vessel wall classifications. The method has been validated on a dataset of 60 CTA images. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the method is comparable to the interobserver variability.