We have explored proteins related to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The serum proteome of 35 amnestic MCI patients and 35 cognitively healthy persons was investigated by LC MS. We identified 108 differentially expressed peptides between MCI patients and controls, belonging to 39 proteins. Eight proteins were selected for further investigation by quantitative protein measurements using a MRM assay; apolipoprotein E, carboxypeptidase N subunit 2, complement factor B (CFAB), galectin-3 binding protein (LG3BP), lumican, serum amyloid A-4 protein (SAA4), serum amyloid P-component, and sex hormone binding globulin. Results of the quantitative protein measurements showed significantly decreased levels of carboxypeptidase N subunit 2, CFAB, LG3BP, SAA4, and serum amyloid P-component in serum from amnestic MCI patients compared with cognitive healthy controls (two-sided t-test; p < 0.05). Apolipoprotein E and lumican showed no significant difference in protein levels, sex hormone binding globulin could not be quantified since the MRM assay did not reach the required sensitivity. A model based on the three most significantly decreased proteins (CFAB, LG3BP, and SAA4) showed a sensitivity and specificity of 73 and 66%, respectively, for the initial sample set. A small external validation set yielded 77% sensitivity and 75% specificity.