Sex-Based Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infarction Treatment Patterns and Outcomes in Older Adults Hospitalized Across 6 High-Income Countries: An Analysis From the International Health Systems Research Collaborative

Hannah Lu, Laura A Hatfield, Saeed Al-Azazi, Pieter Bakx, Amitava Banerjee, Nitzan Burrack, Yu-Chin Chen, Christina Fu, Michal Gordon, Renaud Heine, Nicole Huang, Dennis T Ko, Lisa M Lix, Victor Novack, Laura Pasea, Feng Qiu, Therese A Stukel, Carin A Uyl-de Groot, Gabe Weinreb, Bruce E LandonPeter Cram*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Sex differences in acute myocardial infarction treatment and outcomes are well documented, but it is unclear whether differences are consistent across countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, use of interventional procedures, and outcomes for older females and males hospitalized with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in 6 diverse countries.

METHODS: We conducted a serial cross-sectional cohort study of 1 508 205 adults aged ≥66 years hospitalized with STEMI and NSTEMI between 2011 and 2018 in the United States, Canada, England, the Netherlands, Taiwan, and Israel using administrative data. We compared females and males within each country with respect to age-standardized hospitalization rates, rates of cardiac catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery within 90 days of hospitalization, and 30-day age- and comorbidity-adjusted mortality.

RESULTS: Hospitalization rates for STEMI and NSTEMI decreased between 2011 and 2018 in all countries, although the hospitalization rate ratio (rate in males/rate in females) increased in virtually all countries (eg, US STEMI ratio, 1.58:1 in 2011 and 1.73:1 in 2018; Israel NSTEMI ratio, 1.71:1 in 2011 and 2.11:1 in 2018). Rates of cardiac catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery were lower for females than males for STEMI in all countries and years (eg, US cardiac catheterization in 2018, 88.6% for females versus 91.5% for males; Israel percutaneous coronary intervention in 2018, 76.7% for females versus 84.8% for males) with similar findings for NSTEMI. Adjusted mortality for STEMI in 2018 was higher for females than males in 5 countries (the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, Israel, and Taiwan) but lower for females than males in 5 countries for NSTEMI.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed a larger decline in acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations for females than males between 2011 and 2018. Females were less likely to receive cardiac interventions and had higher mortality after STEMI. Sex disparities seem to transcend borders, raising questions about the underlying causes and remedies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere010144
Pages (from-to)E010144
JournalCirculation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes
Volume17
Issue number3
Early online date8 Feb 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2024

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