Sex Differences in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Marianne Klevmoen, Janneke W.C.M. Mulder, Jeanine E. Roeters van Lennep, Kirsten B. Holven*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
10 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Purpose of Review: 

This review aims to summarize the existing research on sex differences in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) across the lifespan. 

Recent Findings: 

From childhood onward, total- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in girls are higher than those in boys with FH. By the age of 30 years, women with FH have a higher LDL-C burden than men. In adulthood, women are diagnosed later than men, receive less lipid-lowering treatment, and consequently have higher LDL-C levels. An excessive atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk is reported in young female compared to male FH patients. The periods of pregnancy and breastfeeding contribute to treatment loss and increased cholesterol burden. 

Summary: 

Earlier initiation of treatment, especially in girls with FH, and lifelong treatment during all life stages are important. Future research should aim to recruit both women and men, report sex-specific data, and investigate the impact of the female life course on cardiovascular outcomes. Future guidelines should include sex-specific aspects. 

Graphical abstract: 

[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)861-868
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Atherosclerosis Reports
Volume25
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).

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