Sex-specific temporal evolution of circulating biomarkers in patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

M. M. Schreuder, A. Schuurman, K. M. Akkerhuis, A. A. Constantinescu, K. Caliskan, J. van Ramshorst, T. Germans, V. A. Umans, E. Boersma, J. E. Roeters van Lennep, I. Kardys*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: We aimed to assess differences in clinical characteristics, prognosis, and the temporal evolution of circulating biomarkers in male and female patients with HFrEF. Methods: We included 250 patients (66 women) with chronic heart failure (CHF) between 2011 and 2013 and performed trimonthly blood sampling during a median follow-up of 2.2 years [median (IQR) of 8 (5–10) urine and 9 (5–10) plasma samples per patient]. After completion of follow-up we measured 8 biomarkers. The primary endpoint (PE) was the composite of cardiac death, cardiac transplantation, left ventricular assist device implantation, and hospitalization due to acute or worsened CHF. Joint models were used to determine whether there were differences in the temporal patterns of the biomarkers between men and women as the PE approached. Results: A total of 66 patients reached the PE of which 52 (78.8%) were male and 14 (21.2%) were female. The temporal patterns of all studied biomarkers were associated with the PE, and overall showed disadvantageous changes as the PE approached. For NT-proBNP, HsTnT, and CRP, women showed higher levels over the entire follow-up duration and concomitant numerically higher hazard ratios [NT-proBNP: women: HR(95%CI) 7.57 (3.17–21.93), men: HR(95%CI) 3.14 (2.09–4.79), p for interaction = 0.104, HsTnT: women: HR(95%CI) 6.38 (2.18–22.46), men: HR(95%CI) 4.91 (2.58–9.39), p for interaction = 0.704, CRP: women: HR(95%CI) 7.48 (3.43–19.53), men: HR(95%CI) 3.29 [2.27–5.44], p for interaction = 0.106). In contrast, temporal patterns of glomerular and tubular renal markers showed similar associations with the PE in men and women. Conclusion: Although interaction terms are not statistically significant, the associations of temporal patterns of NT-proBNP, HsTnT, and CRP appear more outspoken in women than in men with HFrEF, whereas associations seem similar for temporal patterns of creatinine, eGFR, Cystatin C, KIM-1 and NAG. Larger studies are needed to confirm these potential sex differences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)126-134
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021

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