In this registry-based study which includes acute myeloid leukemia patients who underwent a matched unrelated donor allogeneic peripheral-blood stem cell transplantation in complete remission and received post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis, we compared 421 recipients without anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) with 151 patients with ATG. The only significant differences between PTCY and PTCY + ATG cohorts were the median year of transplant and the follow-up period (2017 vs 2015 and 19.6 vs 31.1 months, respectively, p < 0.0001). Overall, 2-year survival was 69.9% vs 67.1% in PTCY and PTCY + ATG, respectively, with deaths related to relapse (39% vs 43.5%), infection (21.9% vs 23.9%) or GvHD (17.1% vs 17.4%) not differing between groups. On univariate comparison, a significantly lower rate of extensive chronic GvHD was found when ATG was added (9.9% vs 21%, p = 0.029), a finding which was not confirmed in the multivariate analysis. The Cox-model showed no difference between PTCY + ATG and PTCY alone with respect to acute and chronic GvHD of all grades, non-relapse mortality, relapse, leukemia-free survival, overall survival, and GvHD-free-relapse-free survival between study cohorts. Our results highlight that the addition of ATG in PTCY does not provide any extra benefit in terms of further GvHD reduction, better GRFS or better survival.
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited 2022