SLC4A10 mutation causes a neurological disorder associated with impaired GABAergic transmission

James Fasham, Antje K. Huebner, Lutz Liebmann, Reham Khalaf-Nazzal, Reza Maroofian, Nderim Kryeziu, Saskia B. Wortmann, Joseph S. Leslie, Nishanka Ubeyratna, Grazia M.S. Mancini, Marjon van Slegtenhorst, Martina Wilke, Tobias B. Haack, Hanan E. Shamseldin, Joseph G. Gleeson, Mohamed Almuhaizea, Imad Dweikat, Bassam Abu-Libdeh, Muhannad Daana, Maha S. ZakiMatthew N. Wakeling, Lucy McGavin, Peter D. Turnpenny, Fowzan S. Alkuraya, Henry Houlden, Peter Schlattmann, Kai Kaila, Andrew H. Crosby*, Emma L. Baple*, Christian A. Hübner*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
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SLC4A10 is a plasma-membrane bound transporter that utilizes the Na+ gradient to drive cellular HCO3- uptake, thus mediating acid extrusion. In the mammalian brain, SLC4A10 is expressed in principal neurons and interneurons, as well as in epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, the organ regulating the production of CSF. Using next generation sequencing on samples from five unrelated families encompassing nine affected individuals, we show that biallelic SLC4A10 loss-of-function variants cause a clinically recognizable neurodevelopmental disorder in humans. The cardinal clinical features of the condition include hypotonia in infancy, delayed psychomotor development across all domains and intellectual impairment. Affected individuals commonly display traits associated with autistic spectrum disorder including anxiety, hyperactivity and stereotyped movements. In two cases isolated episodes of seizures were reported in the first few years of life, and a further affected child displayed bitemporal epileptogenic discharges on EEG without overt clinical seizures. While occipitofrontal circumference was reported to be normal at birth, progressive postnatal microcephaly evolved in 7 out of 10 affected individuals. Neuroradiological features included a relative preservation of brain volume compared to occipitofrontal circumference, characteristic narrow sometimes 'slit-like' lateral ventricles and corpus callosum abnormalities. Slc4a10 -/- mice, deficient for SLC4A10, also display small lateral brain ventricles and mild behavioural abnormalities including delayed habituation and alterations in the two-object novel object recognition task. Collapsed brain ventricles in both Slc4a10-/- mice and affected individuals suggest an important role of SLC4A10 in the production of the CSF. However, it is notable that despite diverse roles of the CSF in the developing and adult brain, the cortex of Slc4a10-/- mice appears grossly intact. Co-staining with synaptic markers revealed that in neurons, SLC4A10 localizes to inhibitory, but not excitatory, presynapses. These findings are supported by our functional studies, which show the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is compromised in Slc4a10-/- mice, while the release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is preserved. Manipulation of intracellular pH partially rescues GABA release. Together our studies define a novel neurodevelopmental disorder associated with biallelic pathogenic variants in SLC4A10 and highlight the importance of further analyses of the consequences of SLC4A10 loss-of-function for brain development, synaptic transmission and network properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4547-4561
Number of pages15
JournalBrain : a journal of neurology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2023

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