Sources of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in the Netherlands

Saskia A. Rutjes, Willemijn J. Lodder, Froukje Lodder-Verschoor, Harold H.J.L. Van Den Berg, Harry Vennema, Erwin Duizer, Marion Koopmans, Ana Maria Roda De Husman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

131 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


Non-travel-related hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 infections in persons in the Netherlands may have a zoonotic, foodborne, or water-borne origin. Possible reservoirs for HEV transmission by water, food, and animals were studied. HEV genotype 3/open reading frame 2 sequences were detected in 53% of pig farms, 4% of wild boar feces, and 17% of surface water samples. HEV sequences grouped within 4 genotype 3 clusters, of which 1 is so far unique to the Netherlands. The 2 largest clusters contained 35% and 43% of the animal and environmental sequences and 75% and 6%, respectively, of human HEV sequences obtained from a study on Dutch hepatitis E patients. This finding suggests that infection risk may be also dependent on transmission routes other than the ones currently studied. Besides the route of exposure, virus characteristics may be an important determinant for HEV disease in humans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-387
Number of pages7
JournalEmerging Infectious Diseases
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009


Dive into the research topics of 'Sources of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in the Netherlands'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this