Staging laparoscopy in gastric cancer patients: From a Dutch nationwide Delphi consensus towards a standardized protocol

Karen van der Sluis, Niels A.D. Guchelaar*, on behalf of the Collaborators, Lianne Triemstra, Ron H.J. Mathijssen, Jelle P. Ruurda, Bas P.L. Wijnhoven, Johanna W. van Sandick, E. van der Harst, B. van Etten, R. van Hillegersberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Downloads (Pure)



Staging laparoscopy is a common diagnostic tool in gastric cancer, but its performance varies widely. The aim of this study was to gain Dutch nationwide consensus regarding the indications for and execution of staging laparoscopy in patients with gastric cancer. 


All surgeons in the Netherlands specialized in gastric cancer surgery (n = 52) were asked to participate in a Delphi consensus study. The study involved an initial questionnaire with a 3-point Likert scale, an online consensus meeting, and a second questionnaire using a 2-point Likert scale (agree/disagree). Consensus was defined as 70% or more agreement among participants. 


In total, 45 experts completed both questionnaires (87% response rate). Consensus was reached on the indication to perform staging laparoscopy in cT3-4 or cN + or diffuse-type gastric cancer, including Siewert type III oesophagogastric junctional cancer. The experts agreed that if preoperative scans suggest infiltration of surrounding organs (cT4), the tumour's resectability should explicitly be investigated. Consensus was also reached for a systematic peritoneal cavity inspection according to Sugarbaker's Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) score. All regions should be inspected routinely, although the omental bursa may be inspected on indication. Aspiration of ascites or peritoneal washing should be performed for cytology. The experts agreed that restaging laparoscopy should be performed before resection in case of progressive disease on preoperative imaging. Without progression, global inspection was considered sufficient. 


The results of this Dutch nationwide Delphi consensus study exposed the variability of performing staging laparoscopy in patients with gastric cancer and provided the concept for a standardized protocol.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108278
JournalEuropean Journal of Surgical Oncology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Author(s)


Dive into the research topics of 'Staging laparoscopy in gastric cancer patients: From a Dutch nationwide Delphi consensus towards a standardized protocol'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this