Statistical Shape Modeling of US Images to Predict Hip Dysplasia Development in Infants

Joshua M. Bonsel, Willem Paul Gielis, Virginie Pollet, Harrie H. Weinans, Ralph J.B. Sakkers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The current widely applied Graf classification used on US images for developmental dysplasia of the hip in infants does not enable prediction of the development and outcome of well-centered stable dysplastic hips (Graf type II). Purpose: To use statistical shape modeling on US images to identify acetabular shape characteristics of Graf type II hips, which enable prediction of the development of Graf type II hips, and to identify which hips benefit from Pavlik harness treatment. Materials and Methods: In this secondary analysis of a prospective multicenter randomized trial on treatment of 104 infants aged 3-4 months with Graf type IIb or IIc hip dysplasia conducted between 2009 and 2015, a statistical shape model was developed on baseline US images. With multivariable logistic regression adjusted for infant sex and treatment (Pavlik harness treatment vs active observation), shape modes were correlated with the outcomes of persistent hip dysplasia on US images (a angle,60°) after 12-week follow-up and residual hip dysplasia on pelvic radiographs (Tönnis classification: acetabular index greater than 2 standard deviations) around 1 year of age. An interaction term (treatment with mode) was used to investigate if this result depended on treatment. Results: Baseline US images were available in 97 infants (mean age, 3.37 years 6 0.43 [standard deviation]; 89 [92%] girls; 90 cases of Graf type IIb hip dysplasia; 52 cases treated with Pavlik harness). Shape modes 2 and 3 of the statistical shape modeling were associated with persistent hip dysplasia on US images (odds ratio [OR] = 0.43; P = .007 and OR = 2.39; P = .02, respectively). Mode 2 was also associated with residual hip dysplasia on pelvic radiographs (OR = 0.09; P = .002). The interaction term remained significant after multivariable analysis, indicating that Pavlik harness treatment was beneficial in patients with negative mode 2 values (OR = 12.46; P = .01). Conclusion: Statistical shape modeling of US images of infants with Graf type II dysplastic hips predicted which hips developed to normal or remained dysplastic and identified hips that benefited from Pavlik harness treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)425-432
Number of pages8
JournalRadiology
Volume303
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

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© RSNA, 2022

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