Robot-assisted cervical esophagectomy (RACE) enables radical surgery for tumors of the middle and upper esophagus, avoiding a transthoracic approach. However, the cervical access, narrow working space, and complex topographic anatomy make this procedure particularly demanding. Our study offers a stepwise description of appropriate dissection planes and anatomical landmarks to facilitate RACE. Macroscopic dissections were performed on formaldehyde-fixed body donors (three females, three males), according to the surgical steps during RACE. The topographic anatomy and surgically relevant structures related to the cervical access route to the esophagus were described and illustrated, along with the complete mobilization of the cervical and upper thoracic segment. The carotid sheath, intercarotid fascia, and visceral fascia were identified as helpful landmarks, used as optimal dissection planes to approach the cervical esophagus and preserve the structures at risk (trachea, recurrent laryngeal nerves, thoracic duct, sympathetic trunk). While ventral dissection involved detachment of the esophagus from the tracheal cartilage and membranous part, the dorsal dissection plane comprised the prevertebral compartment harboring the thoracic duct and right intercosto-bronchial artery. On the left side, the esophagus was attached to the aortic arch by the aorto-esophageal ligament; on the right side, the esophagus was bordered by the azygos vein, right vagus nerve, and cardiac nerves. The stepwise, illustrated topographic anatomy addressed specific surgical demands and perspectives related to the left cervical approach and dissection of the esophagus, providing an anatomical basis to facilitate and safely implement the RACE procedure.
|Journal||Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus|
|Early online date||16 Jan 2021|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2021|