Testing transactional processes between parental support and adolescent depressive symptoms: From a daily to a biennial timescale

Savannah Boele*, Stefanie A Nelemans, Jaap J A Denissen, Peter Prinzie, Anne Bülow, Loes Keijsers

*Corresponding author for this work

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Transactional processes between parental support and adolescents' depressive symptoms might differ in the short term versus long term. Therefore, this multi-sample study tested bidirectional within-family associations between perceived parental support and depressive symptoms in adolescents with datasets with varying measurement intervals: Daily (N = 244, M (age) = 13.8 years, 38% male), bi-weekly (N = 256, M (age) = 14.4 years, 29% male), three-monthly (N = 245, M (age) = 13.9 years, 38% male), annual (N = 1,664, M (age) = 11.1 years, 51% male), and biennial (N = 502, M (age) = 13.8 years, 48% male). Preregistered random-intercept cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPMs) showed negative between- and within-family correlations. Moreover, although the preregistered models showed no within-family lagged effect from perceived parental support to adolescent depressive symptoms at any timescale, an exploratory model demonstrated a negative lagged effect at a biennial timescale with the annual dataset. Concerning the reverse within-family lagged effect, increases in adolescent depressive symptoms predicted decreases in perceived parental support 2 weeks and 3 months later (relationship erosion effect). Most cross-lagged effects were not moderated by adolescent sex or neuroticism trait level. Thus, the findings mostly support adolescent-driven effects at understudied timescales and illustrate that within-family lagged effects do not generalize across timescales.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1656-1670
Number of pages15
JournalDevelopment and Psychopathology
Issue number4
Early online dateMay 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding statement:
The study and the data of“One Size Does Not Fit All” was
funded by The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO-VIDI;
ADAPT; Assessing the Dynamics between Adaptation and Parenting in Teens
452-17-011) awarded to Loes Keijsers. The data collection of “Grumpy or
Depressed” was funded by a Youth & Identity seed grant of Utrecht University
awarded to Loes Keijsers. The data from the German Family Panel pairfam, is coordinated by Josef Brüderl, Sonja Drobnič, Karsten Hank, Franz J. Neyer, and Sabine
Walper. pairfam is funded as long-term project by the German Research
Foundation (DFG).


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