The progressive nature of demyelinating diseases lies in the inability of the central nervous system (CNS) to induce proper remyelination. Recently, we and others demonstrated that a dysregulated innate immune response partially underlies failure of CNS remyelination. Extensive accumulation of myelin-derived lipids and an inability to process these lipids was found to induce a disease-promoting phagocyte phenotype. Hence, restoring the ability of these phagocytes to metabolize and efflux myelin-derived lipids represents a promising strategy to promote remyelination. Here, we show that ApoA-I mimetic peptide 5A, a molecule well known to promote activity of the lipid efflux transporter ABCA1, markedly enhances remyelination. Mechanistically, we find that the repair-inducing properties of 5A are attributable to increased clearance and metabolism of remyelination-inhibiting myelin debris via the fatty acid translocase protein CD36, which is transcriptionally controlled by the ABCA1-JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway. Altogether, our findings indicate that 5A promotes remyelination by stimulating clearance and degradation of myelin debris.
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