The Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test as a test for executive function: Validity in patient groups and norms for older adults

Esther van den Berg*, Gudrun M. S. Nys, Augustina M. A. Brands, Carla Ruis, Martine J. E. van Zandvoort, Roy P. C. Kessels

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Impairments in executive functioning frequently Occur after acquired brain damage, in psychiatric disorders, and ill relation to aging. The Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test is a relatively new measure for assessing the ability to detect and follow a rule, all important aspect of executive functioning. To date, normative data oil this task are limited, particularly concerning the elderly. This Study presents age- and education-adjusted regression-based norms obtained in a group of healthy older participants (n = 283; mean age 67.4 +/- 8.5 years). The applicability and validity of these norms were further examined in different groups of patients with stroke (it = 106), diabetes mellitus (n = 376), MCl/early dementia (it = 70), psychiatric disorders (it = 63), and Korsakoff's syndrome (it = 4 1). The results showed that patients with Korsakoff's syndrome, stroke, and psychiatric disorders performed significantly worse than healthy controls. Test-retest correlation (n = 83), learning effects, and correlations with other neuropsychological tests were also explored. Based oil the present study, the Brixton test appears useful addition to existing measures of executive functioning. Moreover, the test can be reliably applied in different groups of clinical patients. (JINS, 2009, 15, 695-703.)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)695-703
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Volume15
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2009
Externally publishedYes

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