Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease that is caused either by bacteria or fungi. Bacterial mycetoma (actinomycetoma) can be caused by various causative agents of the genera Nocardia, Streptomyces and Actinomadura. On the other hand, fungal mycetoma (eumycetoma) is most commonly caused by causative agents belonging to the genera Madurella, Scedosporium and Falciformispora. Early and accurate diagnosis of the causative organisms can guide proper patient management and treatment. To allow rapid and accurate species identification, different molecular techniques were developed over the past decades. These techniques can be protein based (MALDI-TOF MS) as well as DNA based (Sequencing, PCR and isothermal amplification methods). In this review, we provide an overview of the different molecular techniques currently in use and identify knowledge gaps, which need to be addressed before we can implement molecular diagnostics for mycetoma in different clinical settings.
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