The Effects of Mean of Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure on Incident Brain Vascular Lesions and Functional-Cognitive Decline

Bibek Gyanwali, Celestine Xue Ting Cai, Christopher Chen, Henri Vrooman, Chuen Seng Tan, Saima Hilal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) is an underlying cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Hypertension is a known risk factor of CeVD, but the effects of mean of visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) on incident CeVD and functional-cognitive decline remains unclear. Objective: To determine the association between mean of visit-to-visit BP with the incidence and progression of CeVD [white matter hyperintensities (WMH), infarcts (cortical infarcts and lacunes), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), intracranial stenosis, and hippocampal volume] as well as functional-cognitive decline over 2 years of follow-up. Methods: 373 patients from a memory-clinic underwent BP measurements at baseline, year 1, and year 2. The mean of visit-to-visit systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure were calculated. Baseline and year 2 MRI scans were graded for WMH, infarcts, CMBs, intracranial stenosis, and hippocampal volume. Functional-cognitive decline was assessed using locally validated protocol. Logistic and linear regression models with odds ratios, mean difference, and 95%confidence interval were constructed to analyze associations of visit-to-visit BP on CeVD incidence and progression as well as functional-cognitive decline. Results: Higher mean of visit-to-visit diastolic BP was associated with WMH progression. Higher tertiles of diastolic BP was associated with WMH progression and incident CMBs. There was no association between mean of visit-to-visit BP measures with incident cerebral infarcts, intracranial stenosis, change in hippocampal volume, and functional-cognitive decline. Conclusion: These findings suggest the possibility of hypertension-related vascular brain damage. Careful monitoring and management of BP in elderly patients is essential to reduce the incidence and progression of CeVD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)561-573
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Volume82
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jul 2021

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