The emerging plasma biomarker Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) and its association with renal and cardiovascular disease in the general population

Arnold Piek, Leonie Smit, Navin Suthahar, Stephan J.L. Bakker, Rudolf A. de Boer, Herman H.W. Silljé*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Herein, baseline DKK3 plasma levels were measured in 8420 subjects from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort, a large general population cohort, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Associations with clinical variables and outcomes were analysed. Median DKK3 level was 32.8 ng/ml (28.0–39.0). In multivariable linear regression analysis, the strongest correlates for plasma DKK3 were age, body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). At baseline, 564 (6.7%) subjects had CVD (defined as a myocardial infarction and/or cerebrovascular accident) and 1361 (16.2%) subjects had CKD (defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or urinary albumin excretion (UAE) > 30 mg/24 h). Of subjects with known CVD and CKD follow-up status (respectively 7828 and 5548), 669 (8.5%) developed CVD and 951 (17.1%) developed CKD (median follow-up respectively 12.5 and 10.2 years). Crude logistic regression analysis revealed that DKK3 levels were associated with prevalent CVD (Odds ratio: 2.14 [1.76–2.61] per DKK3 doubling, P < 0.001) and CKD (Odds ratio: 1.84 [1.59–2.13] per DKK3 doubling, P < 0.001). In crude Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, higher DKK3 levels were associated with higher risk for new-onset CVD (Hazard ratio: 1.47 [1.13–1.91] per DKK3 doubling, P = 0.004) and CKD (Hazard ratio: 1.45, [1.25–1.69] per DKK3 doubling, P < 0.001). However, these associations remained no longer significant after correction for common clinical variables and risk factors, though independently predicted for new-onset CKD in a subgroup of subjects with the lowest UAE values. Together, DKK3 plasma levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors, but are generally not independently associated with prevalent and new-onset CVD and CKD and only predicted for new-onset CKD in those subjects with the lowest UAE values.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8642
JournalScientific Reports
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes

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