The entrepreneurial ladder in transition and non-transition economies

Peter van der Zwan, Ingrid Verheul, Roy Thurik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademic


This paper compares (former) transition and non-transition economies in Europe and Asia with respect to the opportunities available to achieve entrepreneurial progress. In addition, the differential impacts of three perceived environmental barriers to new venture creation are investigated. Entrepreneurial progress is measured using five levels of incremental entrepreneurial involvement. Data from the 2009 â¿¿Flash Eurobarometer Survey on Entrepreneurship, No. 283â¿ by the European Commission, which covers all 27 EU Member States, five other European countries, China, Japan, South Korea, and the U.S., are used. China is found to have a forward position during the early stages of entrepreneurial progress, which contrasts with a lack of early-stage entrepreneurial potential in Japan and South Korea. However, converting nascent activities into a business start-up seems to be the most difficult in China and the U.S. Furthermore, we find that perceived environmental constraints hinder entrepreneurial progress most in (former) European transition countries.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4
JournalEntrepreneurship Research Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2011


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