Multiple sclerosis (MScl) is defined by central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage. Some of the disease mechanisms are known but the cause of this complex disorder stays an enigma. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model mimicking many aspects of MScl. This review aims to provide an overview over proteomic biomarker studies in the EAE model emphasizing the translational aspects with respect to MScl in humans. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.