The Integrity of Integrity Programs: Toward a Normative Framework

Alain Hoekstra, Muel Kaptein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Most of the norms developed for integrity programs are grounded in positivist arguments focused on effectiveness. The norms developed in this article are grounded in normative arguments that are directly deduced from the concept of integrity itself. The four norms are intentional wholeness; organizational wholeness; societal wholeness; and processual wholeness. These norms are operationalized into subnorms and indicators, resulting in a normative framework that helps to assess and advance the integrity of integrity programs.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPublic Integrity
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jul 2020


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