The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study

Wilmar B. Schaufeli*, Arnold B. Bakker, Marisa Salanova

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4502 Citations (Scopus)


This article reports on the development of a short questionnaire to measure work engagement - a positive work-related state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Data were collected in 10 different countries (N = 14,521), and results indicated that the original 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) can be shortened to 9 items (UWES-9). The factorial validity of the UWES-9 was demonstrated using confirmatory factor analyses, and the three scale scores have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Furthermore, a two-factor model with a reduced Burnout factor (including exhaustion and cynicism) and an expanded Engagement factor (including vigor, dedication, absorption, and professional efficacy) fit best to the data. These results confirm that work engagement may be conceived as the positive antipode of burnout. It is concluded that the UWES-9 scores has acceptable psychometric properties and that the instrument can be used in studies on positive organizational behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)701-716
Number of pages16
JournalEducational and Psychological Measurement
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2006


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