Objective: Traditional naming tests are unsuitable to assess naming impairment in diverse populations, given the influence of culture, language, and education on naming performance. Our goal was therefore to develop and validate a new test to assess naming impairment in diverse populations: the Naming Assessment in Multicultural Europe (NAME). Method: We carried out a multistage pilot study. First, we generated a list of 149 potentially suitable items - e.g. from published cross-linguistic word lists and other naming tests - and selected those with a homogeneous age of acquisition and word frequency across languages. We selected three to four colored photographs for each of the 73 remaining items; 194 controls selected the most suitable photographs. Thirteen items were removed after a pilot study in 15 diverse healthy controls. The final 60-item test was validated in 39 controls and 137 diverse memory clinic patients with subjective cognitive impairment, neurological/neurodegenerative disease or psychiatric disorders in the Netherlands and Turkey (mean age: 67, SD: 11). Patients were from 15 different countries; the majority completed primary education or less (53%). Results: The NAME showed excellent reliability (Spearman-Brown coefficient: 0.95; Kuder-Richardson coefficient: 0.94) and robust correlations with other language tests (rho = .35-.73). Patients with AD/mixed dementia obtained lower scores on most (48/60) NAME items, with an area under the curve of 0.88. NAME scores were correlated with age and education, but not with acculturation or sex. Conclusions: The NAME is a promising tool to assess naming impairment in culturally, educationally, and linguistically diverse individuals.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 18 Jan 2022|
Bibliographical noteFINANCIAL SUPPORT
This work was supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development [grant number: 733050834].