The parallel development of ODD and CD symptoms from early childhood to adolescence

Sofia Diamantopoulou, Frank Verhulst, Jan van der Ende

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This study examined the developmental relations between symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) from early childhood to adolescence. Specifically we tested, according to parent-reported problems, whether symptoms of ODD precede the development of CD symptoms, whether ODD and CD symptoms are reciprocally associated across time, or whether ODD and CD symptoms develop parallel to each other across time. Participants were a community-based sample (at time 1: N = 485, 48% boys) assessed biannually five times from age 4 to 6 until age 12-14. The findings suggested that, with control for stability effects, baseline SES, and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ODD and CD symptoms develop parallel to each other. No gender differences were obtained. We conclude that without the initial presence of CD symptoms, ODD symptoms are not developmental precursors to CD symptoms.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)301-309
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Research programs

  • EMC NIHES-04-55-01

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