Beta-blockers are often used during pregnancy to treat cardiovascular diseases. The described neonatal side effects of maternal beta-blocker use are hypoglycemia and bradycardia, but the evidence base for these is yet to be evaluated comprehensively. Hence, this systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the potential increased risk for hypoglycemia and bradycardia in neonates exposed to beta-blockers in utero or during lactation. A systematic search of English-language human studies was conducted until 21 April 2021. Both observational studies and randomized controlled trials investigating hypoglycemia and/or bradycardia in neonates following beta-blocker exposure during pregnancy and lactation were included. All articles were screened by two authors independently and eligible studies were included. Pair-wise and proportion-based meta-analysis was conducted and the certainty of evidence (CoE) was performed by standard methodologies. Of the 1.043 screened articles, 55 were included in this systematic review. Our meta-analysis showed a probable risk of hypoglycemia (CoE—Moderate) and possible risk of bradycardia (CoE—Low) in neonates upon fetal beta-blocker exposure. Therefore, we suggest the monitoring of glucose levels in exposed neonates until 24 h after birth. Due to the limited clinical implication, monitoring of the heart rate could be considered for 24 h. We call for future studies to substantiate our findings.
|Journal||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health|
|Publication status||Published - 4 Aug 2022|
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© 2022 by the authors.