Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma limited to the central nervous system. It has a poor prognosis. Consensus has been reached on the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy, but whether the addition of the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab improves survival, as it does in systemic B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, remains disputed. In this review, we reflect on the available evidence of the use of rituximab in PCNSL. Whether rituximab has any beneficial effect remains uncertain.