The state of complement in COVID-19

Behdad Afzali*, Marina Noris, Bart N. Lambrecht, Claudia Kemper

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

143 Citations (Scopus)
30 Downloads (Pure)


Hyperactivation of the complement and coagulation systems is recognized as part of the clinical syndrome of COVID-19. Here we review systemic complement activation and local complement activation in response to the causative virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and their currently known relationships to hyperinflammation and thrombosis. We also provide an update on early clinical findings and emerging clinical trial evidence that suggest potential therapeutic benefit of complement inhibition in severe COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-84
Number of pages8
JournalNature Reviews Immunology
Issue number2
Early online date15 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Research described in this article was supported (in part) by the Intramural Research Program of the US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (project number ZIA/DK075149 (B.A).) and the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (project number ZIA/Hl006223 (C.K.)), by an FWO COVID-19 grant to B.N.L., and by a COVID-19 grant from the Fondazione Italcementi Cav. Lav. CARLO PESENTI to M.N.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, Springer Nature Limited.


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