Bone is the major store for Ca2+ in the body and plays an important role in Ca2+ homeostasis. During bone formation and resorption Ca2+ must be transported to and from bone by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. However, little is known about the Ca2+ transport machinery in these bone cells. In this study, we examined the epithelial Ca2+ channel TRPV6 in bone. TRPV6 mRNA is expressed in human and mouse osteoblast-like cells as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived human osteoclasts and murine tibial bone marrow-derived osteoclasts. Also other transcellular Ca2+ transport genes, calbindin-D9k and/or -D28K, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1, and plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA1b) were expressed in these bone cell types. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy on human osteoblasts and osteoclasts and mouse osteoclasts revealed TRPV6 protein at the apical domain and PMCA1b at the osteoidal domain of osteoblasts, whereas in osteoclasts TRPV6 was predominantly found at the bone-facing site. TRPV6 was dynamically expressed in human osteoblasts, showing maximal expression during mineralization of the extracellular matrix. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) did not change TRPV6 expression in both mineralizing and non-mineralizing SV-HFO cultures. Lentiviral transduction-mediated overexpression of TRPV6 in these cells did not alter mineralization. Bone microarchitecture and mineralization were unaffected in Trpv6D541A/D541A mice in which aspartate 541 in the pore region was replaced with alanine to render TRPV6 channels non-functional. In summary, TRPV6 and other proteins involved in transcellular Ca2+ transport are dynamically expressed in bone cells, while TRPV6 appears not crucial for bone metabolism and matrix mineralization in mice. J. Cell. Physiol. 227: 19511959, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.