Therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs in hepatology and gastroenterology

Suwasin Udomkarnjananun*, Marith I. Francke, Brenda C.M. De Winter, Midas B. Mulder, Carla C. Baan, Herold J. Metselaar, Caroline M. den Hoed, Dennis A. Hesselink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
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Immunosuppressive drugs have been key to the success of liver transplantation and are essential components of the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). For many but not all immunosuppressants, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is recommended to guide therapy. In this article, the rationale and evidence for TDM of tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid, the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and azathioprine in liver transplantation, IBD, and AIH is reviewed. New developments, including algorithm-based/computer-assisted immunosuppressant dosing, measurement of immunosuppressants in alternative matrices for whole blood, and pharmacodynamic monitoring of these agents is discussed. It is expected that these novel techniques will be incorporate into the standard TDM in the next few years.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101756
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Gastroenterology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
D.A. Hesselink has received lecture fees and consulting fees from Astellas Pharma, Chiesi Pharma, Medincell, Novartis Pharma and Vifor Pharma. He has received grant support from Astellas Pharma, Bristol-Myers Squibb and Chiesi Pharma [paid to his institution]. D.A. Hesselink does not have employment or stock ownership at any of these companies, and neither does he have patents or patent applications.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s)


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