Immune cell development and activation demand the precise and coordinated control of transcriptional programmes. Three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome has emerged as an important regulator of chromatin state, transcriptional activity and cell identity by facilitating or impeding long-range genomic interactions among regulatory elements and genes. Chromatin folding thus enables cell type-specific and stimulus-specific transcriptional responses to extracellular signals, which are essential for the control of immune cell fate, for inflammatory responses and for generating a diverse repertoire of antigen receptor specificities. Here, we review recent findings connecting 3D genome organization to the control of immune cell differentiation and function, and discuss how alterations in genome folding may lead to immune dysfunction and malignancy.
Three-dimensional (3D) genome organization has emerged as an important regulator of gene expression and genomic interaction. Here, the authors explain how 3D genome organization impacts immune cell development and function, and discuss how aberrant genome folding can contribute to immune-mediated disease and cancer.
S.C. is supported by a ‘La Caixa’ Junior Leader fellowship
(LCF/BQ/PI20/11760002), the Jérôme Lejeune Foundation
(JLF #1902) and the Spanish Ministry of Science and
Innovation (PID2020-117950RA-I00). G.S. is supported by
the ‘Fundación Científica de la Asociación Española Contra el
Cáncer’. R.S. is supported by an Erasmus MC Fellowship, a
Dutch Lung Foundation Junior Investigator grant
(4.2.19.041JO), a Daniel den Hoed Foundation grant and an
NWO Vidi grant (09150172010068). The authors acknowledge support by the Spanish Ministry of Science and
Innovation, to the EMBL partnership, the Centro de
Excelencia Severo Ochoa, the Josep Carreras Foundation and
the CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya.