Thrombogenesis of different cell types seeded on vascular grafts and studied under blood-flow conditions

P. Ph A. Hedeman*, H. J.M. Verhagen, G. J. Heijnen-Snyder, T. J.M.V. Van Vroonhoven, J. J. Sixma, P. G. De Groot, B. C. Eikelboom

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Small-diameter vascular grafts tend to have an early and high occlusion rate. Cell seeding on the luminal surfaces of small-diameter vascular prostheses may provide an antithrombotic lining and improve both the short-term and the long-term patency rates. We studied the net results of procoagulant and anticoagulant properties of seeded grafts under blood-flow conditions, and we compared the different available types of donor cells. Methods: Monolayers of liposuction-derived cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs), human adult endothelial cells (HAECs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and human mesothelial cells (MCs) that had been seeded on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts were perfused with marginally anticoagulated blood (20 U/mL low molecular weight heparin; shear rate, 400/s, 10 minutes) or with non-anticoagulated blood (shear rate, 100/s, 5 minutes). The thrombin and fibrin generation in time was studied with the measurement of the plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1 and 2 (F 1+2) and of fibrinopeptide A (FPA). The plain ePTFE graft was taken as a control. Results: When the seeded MCs were perfused with recirculating anticoagulated blood, a linear generation of F 1+2 in time was seen, with high levels of F 1+2 and FPA after 10 minutes (4.38 mol/L and 362 ng/mL, respectively). Allopurinol was added, and the MCs generated less F 1+2 than the HAECs (0.7 nmol/L vs 1.86 nmol/L; P < .05). No fibrin formation was seen. The MVECs generated low amounts of F 1+2 (0.7 nmol/L; 10 minutes), and the HUVECs and the plain ePTFE graft generated the lowest amounts off 1+2 (0.26 and 0.25 nmol//L, respectively). When the MCs were perfused with nonanticoagulated blood, high amounts of thrombin and fibrin were generated immediately and constantly and could not be decreased with allopurinol. The perfusion of the plain ePTFE graft showed a dramatic increase in F 1+2 and FPA levels towards the end of the experiments. The seeded HAECs, HUVECs, and MVECs inhibited this increase. These results were confirmed by means of scanning electron microscopy. Conclusion: Vascular prostheses that are seeded with cultured MCs are highly procoagulant. Standard ePTFE graft prostheses also initiate coagulation, which supports the idea of cell seeding. The endothelial cells, of which the MVECs are the most readily available, seem to preserve their anticoagulant properties after being seeded on vascular grafts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1094-1103
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1998
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Supported by grants from the Dutch Heart Association and the University Hospital Utrecht.


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