Thyroid hormone is essential for fetal (brain) development. Plasma membrane transporters control the intracellular bioavailability of thyroid hormone. In the past few decades, 15 human thyroid hormone transporters have been identified, and among them, mutations in monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)8 and organic anion transporting peptide (OATP)1C1 are associated with clinical phenotypes. Different animal and human models have been employed to unravel the (patho)-physiological role of thyroid hormone transporters. However, most studies on thyroid hormone transporters focus on postnatal development. This review summarizes the research on the thyroid hormone transporters in pregnancy and fetal development, including their substrate preference, expression and tissue distribution, and physiological and pathophysiological role in thyroid homeostasis and clinical disorders. As the fetus depends on the maternal thyroid hormone supply, especially during the first half of pregnancy, the review also elaborates on thyroid hormone transport across the human placental barrier. Future studies may reveal how the different transporters contribute to thyroid hormone homeostasis in fetal tissues to properly facilitate development. Employing state-of-the-art human models will enable a better understanding of their roles in thyroid hormone homeostasis.