Time is of the essence: Improving the conceptualization and measurement of time

H Aguinis, Rene Bakker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)
126 Downloads (Pure)


We advance the understanding and measurement of the concept of time by offering a taxonomy of four distinct time constructs: duration, frequency, timing, and sequence. On the basis of a literature review of human resource management and allied fields (i.e., organizational behavior, industrial and organizational psychology, general management, entrepreneurship, and strategic management studies), we offer recommendations on how to measure each construct as well as illustrations drawn from different domains and theories on how these recommendations can be implemented. In addition, for each construct, we offer specific, practical, and actionable recommendations regarding critical design choices, dilemmas, and trade-offs that must be considered when investigating time conceptually and empirically. We discuss these recommendations in the form of a sequential decision-making process that can be used as a roadmap by researchers. We hope our conceptualization and recommendations will serve as a catalyst and useful resource for future conceptual and empirical research that aims to formulate better time-sensitive and temporally falsifiable theories.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100763
JournalHuman Resource Management Review
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

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© 2020 Elsevier Inc.


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