Toward Transplantation of Liver Organoids: From Biology and Ethics to Cost-effective Therapy

Marjolein J M Ten Dam, Geert W J Frederix, Renske M T Ten Ham, Luc J W van der Laan, Kerstin Schneeberger*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
57 Downloads (Pure)


Liver disease is a common cause of morbidity and mortality, and many patients would benefit from liver transplantation. However, because of a shortage of suitable donor livers, even of those patients who are placed on the donor liver waiting list, many do not survive the waiting time for transplantation. Therefore, alternative treatments for end-stage liver disease need to be explored. Recent advances in organoid technology might serve as a solution to overcome the donor liver shortage in the future. In this overview, we highlight the potential of organoid technology for cell therapy and tissue engineering approaches. Both organoid-based approaches could be used as treatment for end-stage liver disease patients. Additionally, organoid-based cell therapy can also be used to repair liver grafts ex vivo to increase the supply of transplantable liver tissue. The potential of both approaches to become clinically available is carefully assessed, including their clinical, ethical, and economic implications. We provide insight into what aspects should be considered further to allow alternatives to donor liver transplantation to be successfully clinically implemented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1706-1717
Number of pages12
Issue number8
Early online date9 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Dutch Research Council NWO VENI (016. Veni.198.021) to K.S.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.


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