Towards PErsonalised PRognosis for children with traumatic brain injury: The PEPR study protocol

Cece C. Kooper*, Jaap Oosterlaan, Hilgo Bruining, Marc Engelen, Petra J.W. Pouwels, Arne Popma, Job B.M. Van Woensel, Dennis R. Buis, Marjan E. Steenweg, Maayke Hunfeld, Marsh Königs

*Corresponding author for this work

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Introduction Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children can be associated with poor outcome in crucial functional domains, including motor, neurocognitive and behavioural functioning. However, outcome varies between patients and is mediated by complex interplay between demographic factors, premorbid functioning and (sub)acute clinical characteristics. At present, methods to understand let alone predict outcome on the basis of these variables are lacking, which contributes to unnecessary follow-up as well as undetected impairments in children. Therefore, this study aims to develop prognostic models for the individual outcome of children with TBI in a range of important developmental domains. In addition, the potential added value of advanced neuroimaging data and the use of machine learning algorithms in the development of prognostic models will be assessed. Methods and analysis 210 children aged 4-18 years diagnosed with mild-To-severe TBI will be prospectively recruited from a research network of Dutch hospitals. They will be matched 2:1 to a control group of neurologically healthy children (n=105). Predictors in the model will include demographic, premorbid and clinical measures prospectively registered from the TBI hospital admission onwards as well as MRI metrics assessed at 1 month post-injury. Outcome measures of the prognostic models are (1) motor functioning, (2) intelligence, (3) behavioural functioning and (4) school performance, all assessed at 6 months post-injury. Ethics and dissemination Ethics has been obtained from the Medical Ethical Board of the Amsterdam UMC (location AMC). Findings of our multicentre prospective study will enable clinicians to identify TBI children at risk and aim towards a personalised prognosis. Lastly, findings will be submitted for publication in open access, international and peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NL71283.018.19 and NL9051.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere058975
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Amsterdam University Medical Centre (location AMC) through the Department of General Pediatrics. Subsidising parties were Cornelia Stichting (no award/grant number), Janivo Stichting (2017576), Dr CJ Vaillantfonds (no award/grant number) and Amsterdam Research & Development (V.000296).

Publisher Copyright:
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022.


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