Translation and evaluation of psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Single Assessment and Numeric Evaluation Method (SANEM) in shoulder patients

Dieuwertje M.J. Theeuwen, Maria C. Van Der Steen*, Inge F.M. Bonneux, Anouk M.E. Giesberts, Henk W.J. Koot, Max Reijman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Background: 

The Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation Method (SANEM) is a holistic patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) that includes all aspects involving the shoulder. It is simple and easy to administer. It consists of only one question, namely how would you rate your shoulder today as a percentage of normal (0 to 100% with 100% being normal)? The purpose of this study was to translate the SANEM in Dutch and to assess its construct validity, reliability, and responsiveness. 

Methods: 

The SANEM was translated into Dutch using forward and backward translation. Hypothesis testing was used to determine construct validity and responsiveness, 75% needed to be confirmed. Previous validated PROMs were used as comparator instrument for testing construct validity. Test-retest reliability (2-week interval), Standard Error of Measurement, and Smallest Detectable Change were calculated as reliability analyses. One year after baseline, we evaluated the responsiveness. 

Results: 

One hundred seven patients (55% women) with a mean age of 54 years were included. Of the hypotheses formed in advance to assess construct validity, 67% was confirmed, meaning there was no adequate construct validity and the SANEM cannot replace all other PROMs. With an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.95, excellent test-retest reliability was found. Of the hypotheses formed in advance to evaluate the responsiveness, 75% was confirmed, indicating the SANEM has good responsiveness. 

Conclusion: 

Although the SANEM cannot replace all other PROMs, it is a reliable instrument to assess if a patients' shoulder, regarding the whole shoulder, changes over time or stays unchanged.

Original languageEnglish
Article number303
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sept 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Author(s).

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