Understanding the association between sleep, shift work and COVID-19 vaccine immune response efficacy: Protocol of the S-CORE study

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This protocol describes an innovative study to investigate the relationship between sleep, shift work and the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) vaccination. As the COVID-19 pandemic is a global crisis with devastating health, social and economic impacts, there is a pressing need for effective vaccination programmes. Previous influenza and hepatitis vaccination studies suggest that lack of sleep can negatively alter immune responsiveness, while circadian misalignment most likely may also play an important role in the immune response to vaccination. Our present study will be the first to address this question in actual shift workers and in relation to COVID-19 vaccination. We hypothesise that the occurrence of recent night shifts and diminished sleep will negatively alter the immune response to vaccination in shift workers compared to dayworkers. We aim to recruit 50 shift workers and 50 dayworkers. Participants will receive an mRNA-based vaccination, through the Dutch vaccination programme. To assess immune responsiveness, blood will be drawn at baseline (before first vaccination), 10 days after first vaccination, the day prior to the second vaccination; and 28 days, 6 and 12 months after the second vaccination. Actigraphy and daily sleep e-diaries will be implemented for 7 days around each vaccination to assess sleep. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index will be used to monitor sleep in the long term. Optimising the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines is of outmost importance and results of this study could provide insights to develop sleep and circadian-based interventions to enhance vaccination immunity, and thereby improve global health.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13496
JournalJournal of Sleep Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society


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