New and rapid antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance testing methods are required for bacteria from positive blood cultures. In this study, a multiplex-targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for the detection of β-lactam, aminoglycoside, and fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in blood cultures growing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae complex. Selected targets were the β-lactamases SHV, TEM, OXA-1-like, CTX-M-1-like, CMY-2-like, chromosomal E. coli AmpC (cAmpC), OXA-48-like, NDM, VIM, and KPC; the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes AAC(3)-Ia, AAC(3)-II, AAC(3)-IV, AAC(3)-VI, AAC(6′)-Ib, ANT(2 (Formula presented.))-I, and APH(3′)-VI; the 16S-RMTases ArmA, RmtB, RmtC, and RmtF; the quinolone resistance mechanisms QnrA, QnrB, AAC(6′)-Ib-cr; the wildtype quinolone resistance determining region of GyrA; and the E. coli porins OmpC and OmpF. The developed assay was evaluated using 100 prospectively collected positive blood cultures, and 148 negative blood culture samples spiked with isolates previously collected from blood cultures or isolates carrying less prevalent resistance mechanisms. The time to result was approximately 3 h. LC-MS/MS results were compared with whole-genome sequencing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing results. Overall, there was a high agreement between LC-MS/MS results and whole-genome sequencing results. In addition, the majority of susceptible and non-susceptible phenotypes were correctly predicted based on LC-MS/MS results. Exceptions were the predictions for ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid that matched with the phenotype in 85.9 and 63.7% of the isolates, respectively. Targeted LC-MS/MS based on parallel reaction monitoring can be applied for the rapid and accurate detection of various resistance mechanisms in blood cultures growing E. coli or K. pneumoniae complex.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by both the Netherlands Enterprise Agency and the European Union through Horizon 2020 by means of a Eurostars grant (project number 18128).
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