Introduction: In human pharmacology, there are two important scientific branches: clinical pharmacology and pharmacoepidemiology. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling is important in preclinical studies and randomized control trials. However, it is rarely used in pharmacoepidemiological studies on the effectiveness and medication safety where the target population is heterogeneous and followed for longer periods. The objective of this literature review was to investigate how far PK/PD modeling is utilized in observational studies on glucose-lowering and antiarrhythmic drugs. Method: A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science was conducted from January 2010 to 21 February 2020. To calculate the utilization of PK/PD modeling in observational studies, we followed two search strategies. In the first strategy, we screened a 1% random set from 95,672 studies on glucose-lowering and antiarrhythmic drugs on inclusion criteria. In the second strategy, we evaluated the percentage of studies in which PK/PD modeling techniques were utilized. Subsequently, we divided the total number of included studies in the second search strategy by the total number of eligible studies in the first search strategy. Results: The comprehensive search of databases and the manual search of included references yielded a total of 29 studies included in the qualitative synthesis of our systematic review. Nearly all 29 studies had utilized a PK model, whereas only two studies developed a PD model to evaluate the effectiveness of medications. In total, 16 out of 29 studies (55.1%) used a PK/PD model in the observational setting to study effect modification. The utilization of PK/PD modeling in observational studies was calculated as 0.42%. Conclusion: PK/PD modeling techniques were substantially underutilized in observational studies of antiarrhythmic and glucose-lowering drugs during the past decade.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project received funding from the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 joint undertaking under grant agreement no 116030. This joint undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme and EFPIA.
Copyright © 2022 Mohammadi Jouabadi, Nekouei Shahraki, Peymani, Stricker and Ahmadizar.