Validation of ultrasound velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics for flow assessment in femoral artery stenotic disease

Lennart van de Velde*, Majorie van Helvert, Stefan Engelhard, Ashkan Ghanbarzadeh-Dagheyan, Hadi Mirgolbabaee, Jason Voorneveld, Guillaume Lajoinie, Michel Versluis, Michel M P J Reijnen, Erik Groot Jebbink

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

PURPOSE: 

To investigate the accuracy of high-framerate echo particle image velocimetry (ePIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for determining velocity vectors in femoral bifurcation models through comparison with optical particle image velocimetry (oPIV).

APPROACH: 

Separate femoral bifurcation models were built for oPIV and ePIV measurements of a non-stenosed (control) and a 75%-area stenosed common femoral artery. A flow loop was used to create triphasic pulsatile flow. In-plane velocity vectors were measured with oPIV and ePIV. Flow was simulated with CFD using boundary conditions from ePIV and additional duplex-ultrasound (DUS) measurements. Mean differences and 95%-limits of agreement (1.96*SD) of the velocity magnitudes in space and time were compared, and the similarity of vector complexity (VC) and time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) was assessed.

RESULTS: 

Similar flow features were observed between modalities with velocities up to 110 and 330    cm / s in the control and the stenosed model, respectively. Relative to oPIV, ePIV and CFD-ePIV showed negligible mean differences in velocity ( < 3    cm / s ), with limits of agreement of ± 25    cm / s (control) and ± 34    cm / s (stenosed). CFD-DUS overestimated velocities with limits of agreements of 13 ± 40 and 16.1 ± 55    cm / s for the control and stenosed model, respectively. VC showed good agreement, whereas TAWSS showed similar trends but with higher values for ePIV, CFD-DUS, and CFD-ePIV compared to oPIV.

CONCLUSIONS:

EPIV and CFD-ePIV can accurately measure complex flow features in the femoral bifurcation and around a stenosis. CFD-DUS showed larger deviations in velocities making it a less robust technique for hemodynamical assessment. The applied ePIV and CFD techniques enable two- and three-dimensional assessment of local hemodynamics with high spatiotemporal resolution and thereby overcome key limitations of current clinical modalities making them an attractive and cost-effective alternative for hemodynamical assessment in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number037001
JournalJournal of Medical Imaging
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2024

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