Validation of ultrasound velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics for flow assessment in femoral artery stenotic disease

Lennart van de Velde*, Majorie van Helvert, Stefan Engelhard, Ashkan Ghanbarzadeh-Dagheyan, Hadi Mirgolbabaee, Jason Voorneveld, Guillaume Lajoinie, Michel Versluis, Michel M P J Reijnen, Erik Groot Jebbink

*Corresponding author for this work

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To investigate the accuracy of high-framerate echo particle image velocimetry (ePIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for determining velocity vectors in femoral bifurcation models through comparison with optical particle image velocimetry (oPIV).


Separate femoral bifurcation models were built for oPIV and ePIV measurements of a non-stenosed (control) and a 75%-area stenosed common femoral artery. A flow loop was used to create triphasic pulsatile flow. In-plane velocity vectors were measured with oPIV and ePIV. Flow was simulated with CFD using boundary conditions from ePIV and additional duplex-ultrasound (DUS) measurements. Mean differences and 95%-limits of agreement (1.96*SD) of the velocity magnitudes in space and time were compared, and the similarity of vector complexity (VC) and time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) was assessed.


Similar flow features were observed between modalities with velocities up to 110 and 330    cm / s in the control and the stenosed model, respectively. Relative to oPIV, ePIV and CFD-ePIV showed negligible mean differences in velocity ( < 3    cm / s ), with limits of agreement of ± 25    cm / s (control) and ± 34    cm / s (stenosed). CFD-DUS overestimated velocities with limits of agreements of 13 ± 40 and 16.1 ± 55    cm / s for the control and stenosed model, respectively. VC showed good agreement, whereas TAWSS showed similar trends but with higher values for ePIV, CFD-DUS, and CFD-ePIV compared to oPIV.


EPIV and CFD-ePIV can accurately measure complex flow features in the femoral bifurcation and around a stenosis. CFD-DUS showed larger deviations in velocities making it a less robust technique for hemodynamical assessment. The applied ePIV and CFD techniques enable two- and three-dimensional assessment of local hemodynamics with high spatiotemporal resolution and thereby overcome key limitations of current clinical modalities making them an attractive and cost-effective alternative for hemodynamical assessment in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number037001
JournalJournal of Medical Imaging
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2024

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