Background: Muscle attenuation (MA) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have not yet been included in the currently used alternative Fistula Risk Score (a-FRS). The aim of this study was to examine the added value of these parameters as predictors of clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF) in the a-FRS after pancreatoduodenectomy compared to Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods: A single center retrospective cohort study was performed in patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy between 2009 and 2018. The a-FRS model was reproduced, MA and VAT were both combined and separately added to the model instead of BMI using logistic regression analysis. Model discrimination was assessed by ROC-curves. Results: In total, 329 patients were included of which 55 (16.7%) developed CR-POPF. The a-FRS model showed an AUC of 0.74 (95%CI: 0.68–0.80). In this model, BMI was not significantly associated with CR-POPF (p = 0.16). The MA + VAT model showed an AUC of 0.81 (95%CI: 0.75–0.86). VAT was significantly associated with CR-POPF (per cm2, OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.00–1.01; p < 0.001). The AUC of the MA + VAT model differed significantly from the AUC of the a-FRS model (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Visceral adipose tissue is of added value in the a-FRS compared to BMI in predicting CR-POPF in patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy.
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