Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common chronic arrhythmia and it increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Still there is not a complete understanding of its etiology and underlying pathways. Vitamin D might regulate renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and might be involved in inflammation, both implicated in the pathophysiology of AF. The objective of this work was to investigate the association between vitamin D status with the risk of AF in the elderly. This study was conducted within the Rotterdam Study, a community-based cohort of middle-aged and elderly participants in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. We had 3,395 participants who were free of AF diagnosis at the start of our study and who had vitamin D data available. We analyzed the association between serum 25-hydroxivitamin D (25(OH)D) and incidence of AF using Cox regression models. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations <50nmol/l, insufficiency between 50nmol/l and 75nmol/l, while serum 25(OH)D concentrations equal to and above 75nmol/l were considered as adequate. After mean follow-up of 12.0 years 263 (7.7%) participants were diagnosed with incident AF. Vitamin D status was not associated with AF in any of the 3 multivariate models tested (model adjusted for socio-demographic factors and life-style factors: HR per 10 unit increment in serum 25(OH)D 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91-1.02; HR for insufficiency: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.60-1.11, and HR for adequate status: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.52-1.12 compared to deficiency). This prospective cohort study does not support the hypothesis that vitamin D status is associated with AF.