Objective: Restenosis is the main drawback of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Inherited factors may explain part of the risk of restenosis. Recently, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been shown to be involved not only in bone metabolism but also in modulating immune responses and cell proliferation. Since the inflammatory response is implicated in restenosis, VDR-gene variants could therefore contribute to the risk of restenosis. Methods/results: Systematic genotyping for 15 haplotype tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VDR gene was performed with the high throughput TaqMan allelic discrimination assays in the Genetic Determinants of Restenosis (GENDER) population. A haplotype-based survival analysis revealed an association of haplotypes in blocks 2, 3 and 4 of the VDR-gene with the risk of clinical restenosis (p-values 0.01, 0.04 and 0.02 respectively). After adjustment for clinical risk factors for restenosis, the individual effect of the block 2 AA haplotype (p = 0.011) persisted. Conclusions: The present study indicates that VDR plays a role in restenosis after PCI. Therefore, VDR genotype may be used as risk marker for restenosis and may contribute to individual patient screening prior to PCI in clinical practice.