Which Patients with Prostate Cancer and Lymph Node Uptake at Preoperative Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography Scan Are at a Higher Risk of Prostate-specific Antigen Persistence After Radical Prostatectomy? Identifying Indicators of Systemic Disease by Integrating Clinical, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Functional Imaging Parameters

Elio Mazzone*, Giorgio Gandaglia, Daniele Robesti, Pawel Rajwa, Juan Gomez Rivas, Laura Ibáñez, Timo F W Soeterik, Lorenzo Bianchi, Luca Afferi, Claudia Kesch, Christopher Darr, Hongqian Guo, Junlong Zhuang, Fabio Zattoni, Wolfgang P Fendler, Daniele Amparore, Nicolai A Huebner, Alexander Giesen, Steven Joniau, Riccardo SchiavinaEugenio Brunocilla, Agostino Mattei, Fabrizio Dal Moro, Jesus Moreno Sierra, Francesco Porpiglia, Maria Picchio, Arturo Chiti, Roderick van den Bergh, Shahrokh F Shariat, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The role of local therapies including radical prostatectomy (RP) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients with clinical lymphadenopathies on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) has scarcely been explored. Limited data are available to identify men who would benefit from RP; on the contrary, those more likely to benefit already have systemic disease.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the predictors of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) persistence in surgically managed PCa patients with lymphadenopathies on a PSMA PET/CT scan by integrating clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and PSMA PET/CT parameters.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 519 patients treated with RP and extended lymph node dissection, and who received preoperative PSMA PET between 2017 and 2022 in nine referral centers. Among them, we selected 88 patients with nodal uptake at preoperative PSMA PET (miTxN1M0).

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The outcome was PSA persistence, defined as a PSA value of ≥0.1 ng/ml at the first measurement after surgery. Multivariable logistic regression models tested the predictors of PSA persistence. Covariates consisted of biopsy International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade group, clinical stage at MRI, and number of positive spots at a PET/CT scan. A regression tree analysis stratified patients into risk groups based on preoperative characteristics.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall, lymph node invasion (LNI) was detected in 63 patients (72%) and 32 (36%) experienced PSA persistence after RP. At multivariable analyses, having more than two lymph nodal positive findings at PSMA PET, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) at MRI, and ISUP grade group >3 at biopsy were independent predictors of PSA persistence (all p < 0.05). At the regression tree analysis, patients were stratified in four risk groups according to biopsy ISUP grade, number of positive findings at PET/CT, and clinical stage at MRI. The model depicted good discrimination at internal validation (area under the curve 78%).

CONCLUSIONS: One out of three miN1M0 patients showed PSA persistence after surgery. Patients with ISUP grade 2-3, as well as patients with organ-confined disease at MRI and a single or two positive nodal findings at PET are those in whom RP may achieve the best oncological outcomes in the context of a multimodal approach. Conversely, patients with a high ISUP grade and extracapsular extension or SVI or more than two spots at PSMA PET should be considered as potentially affected by systemic disease upfront.

PATIENT SUMMARY: Our novel and straightforward risk classification integrates currently available preoperative risk tools and should, therefore, assist physician in preoperative counseling of men candidates for radical treatment for prostate cancer with positive lymph node uptake at prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-240
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean urology oncology
Volume7
Issue number2
Early online date7 Sept 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2023 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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