Why is my bus suddenly so crowded? Spillover effects of the discontinuation of three-in-one policy in Jakarta

Joshua Paundra*, Jan van Dalen, Laurens Rook, Wolfgang Ketter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
39 Downloads (Pure)


We assess the case of the abrupt discontinuation of the three-in-one policy, a high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) restriction, in Jakarta, with the objective of mapping potential interdependencies in the transportation system. Statistical investigation of the passenger volume in the bus rapid transit (BRT) system in the whole city before and after the policy change revealed a significant increase in the number of passengers during peak hours, especially in the evening period. The extent of the increase, however, depended on whether the area had been subject to the initial policy restriction. The case of sudden discontinuation of the three-in-one policy in Jakarta illustrates how a change in policy aimed at a single transportation mode may spill over to alternative transportation modes. The importance of acknowledging the systemic nature of urban transportation systems when altering policies intended to discourage the use of a single transportation mode within the larger transportation network is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)995-1005
Number of pages11
JournalCase Studies on Transport Policy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The first author of this study acknowledges the financial support from Lembaga Pengelola Dana Pendidikan (LPDP - Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education). The authors thank PT. Transportasi Jakarta (Transjakarta) for providing the data used in this study. The authors also thank reviewers and participants of the 15th World Conference on Transport Research for their feedback, as well as Dr. Antonio Russo for his review of the earlier version of this study.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021


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